(D) Load Resistor . Add a 9V zener diode in parallel with the - kΩ load resistance in Figure 9 and repeat the 2-measurements in step 7. The breakdown voltage or zener voltage (VZ) across the diode remains relatively constant. Zener Diode Characteristics Part A: V-I Characteristics Part B: Zener Diode act as a Voltage Regulator 3. To find the Zener Break down voltage in reverse biased condition. The circuit for studying the forward bias characteristics of a Zener diode is as shown in the figure1. When the diode is connected in forward bias diode acts as a normal diode. Fig 2: Zener diode characteristic curve . APPARATUS:- PROCEDURE: FORWARD BIAS CHARACTERISTICS 1. EXP-7> To draw characteristics of a zener diode and to determine its reverse breakdown voltage. Give the input as triangular voltage waveform from Function Generator (both positive and negative peaks). Sl No Name of Experiment Page No 1. Cbse Class 12 Zener Diode Experiment Readings Get link; Facebook; Twitter; Pinterest; Email; Other Apps; October 11, 2019 Get Information About Tamil Nadu Board Class 12 Physics. Open Diode. Shunt regulators have an inherent current limiting advantage under load fault conditions because the series resistor limits excess current. Theory. The reverse characteristic curve of the Zener diode is obtained. Is the breakdown region in Zener really destructible? Zener Diode. The zener diode characteristics have been studied. Use the Curve Tracer to obtain the characteristic curve of a 1N5234B $6.2\,\mathrm{V}$ Zener diode. Zener diodes are also known as a) Voltage regulators b) Forward bias diode c) Breakdown diode d) None of the mentioned. The process becomes cumulative and leads to the generation of a large number of charge carriers resulting in Avalanche Breakdown. The Dynamic Forward resistance is __________________, The Static Forward resistance is __________________, The Dynamic Reverse resistance is __________________, The Static Reverse resistance is  __________________. The characteristics of a regular junction diode will show that it is designed primarily for operation in the forward direction. Similarly, experiment by keeping the diode in forwarding bias and tabulate the readings. Do not switch ON the power supply unless you have checked the circuit connections as per the circuit diagram. This breakdown voltage is known as the Zener voltage. analyze the working of Zener diode as a voltage regulator for line regulation and load regulation. 4-6 3. The reverse breakdown voltage of the Zener diode, V = ………….V. To find Zener break down voltage in reverse biased condition. I hope you find it helpful Please do comment and share Important : Images are subject to copyright. It permits current to flow in the forward direction as normal, but will also allow it to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above a certain value - the breakdown voltage known as the Zener voltage. What are the applications of Zener diode? 3. Then for all other combinations of input voltage and load current the Zener diode conducts the excess current thus maintaining a constant voltage across the load. When the diode is in the reverse bias condition, the width of the depletion region is more. 20. The reverse breakdown voltage varies between different Zener diodes. Diode characteristics experiment readings. This property of zener diode makes its use as a voltage regulator. A Zener Diode is a special kind of diode which permits current to flow in the forward direction as normal, but will also allow it to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above the breakdown voltage or ‘zener’ voltage.u000b Zener diodes are designed so that their breakdown voltage is much lower - for example just 2.4 Volts. Zener Diode Characteristics. In the forward biased mode the zener diode operates as a p-n diode. Zener diodes are designed in a way where the Zener voltage is a much lower value. Figure . The forward bias characteristic of Zener diode is same as the normal PN junction diode but in reverse bias it has different characteristic. 1. 21. zener diode. In zener diode, electric current flows from both anode to cathode and cathode to anode. h) Bias Current (I2) Stability Noise 9 _:5% . Forward biasing will cause a large I F with a rather small value of V F.Reverse biasing will generally not cause current conduction until … Apparatus A Zener diode (with small reverse breakdown voltage of about 6 volts), [i.e., V z = 6 V], a ten volt battery, a high resistance rheostat, two 0-10 V voltmeter, one 0-100 mA ammeter, one 20 Ω. resistance, one way key, connecting wires. Ordinary diodes are forward biased and work in the forward direction. But for simplicity, both types are called Zener Diodes. The I-V Characteristics Curve of a zener diode, shown below, is the curve which shows the current-voltage relationship of a zener diode. What is the max value of voltage of Zener breakdown devices? The following contains the verified lab manual record of the experiment for reference along with the readings. This heavy doping results in a low value of reverse breakdown voltage (BV R). So exceeding the reverse voltage may result in the device being damaged. The typical forward voltage at room temperature with a current of around 1 mA is around 0.6 volts. EXPERIMENT NUMBER 4 Examining the Characteristics of Diodes . Theory: A Zener Diode is constructed for operation in the reverse breakdown re-gion.The relation between I-V is almost linear in this case Vz =Vz0+Iz Rz, Here the Zener diode acts like an ordinary diode. Preface: ... (Take at least 8 readings). To observe and draw the V-I characteristics and Regulation characteristics of a Zener diode. This document is highly rated by JEE students and has been viewed 162 times. When Zener diode is forward biased, it acts as a _________. Ans:Generally the maximum zener voltage id about 200V. 7.5 . Apparatus:-Experimental kit and patch cords. The reverse leakage current has been exaggerated to make it show on the graph. OBJECTIVE To demonstrate the characteristics of Zener diode as a voltage regulator. This voltage is … The readings of voltage and current are tabulated. Such sudden increase in the number of charge carriers due to rupture of covalent bonds under the influence of strong electric field is termed as Zener breakdown. Current-voltage characteristic of a Zener diode with a breakdown voltage of 3.4 V. Temperature coefficient of Zener voltage against nominal Zener voltage. Zener diode characteristics can be observed. This article will help to explain the characteristics which make up zener diodes, specifically how the voltage across a zener diode varies with the current flowing through it. Connect the Circuit as per the Circuit Diagram on the bread board. Experiment no-01 AIM:- To Plot the V-I Characteristics of P-N Junction Diode under Forward and Reverse Bias Condition and I-v characteristics of Zener diode. The graph below shows the current/voltage characteristics of a Zener diode. Funded by MeitY (Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology), English Zener diode experiment. In Experiment A, a 12V zener diode is connected in reversed biased as shown in the image and it can be seen that the zener diode blocked the voltage effectively because it was less/equal to the breakdown voltage of the particular zener diode and the lamp thus stayed off. This is an individual effort but members of a team can and should share insight, confirm results, and help problem solve. Brief Theory: When a reverse-bias voltage is applied to a pn junction, the electric field in the space-charge region is increases. block of Figure 1. Plot the V-I graph and observe the change. We will then plot it to get the depen-dence. To Study the working of a diode as half w ave rectifier with and without filter. What are the different types of breakdowns in semiconductor junctions? 10. The maximum reverse current is limited, however, by the wattage rating of the diode. The fact that the voltage across the diode in the breakdown region is almost constant turns out to be an important application of the zener diode as a voltage regulator . All Study Guide At One Place Physics Practical Class 12. Zener diode is generally used in ________ biased condition. calculate static and dynamic resistance in both forward and reverse bias condition. You can notice the corresponding ammeter and voltmeter readings. If we operate an ordinary diode in reverse biased, it conducts insignificant current until the voltage applied across them exceeds the … 2. 3. Ans: The forward voltage at which the current through the junction starts increasing rapidly, is called the knee voltage or cut-in voltage. When forward biased voltage is applied to the zener diode, it works like a normal diode. 10. 7-9 4. Connect the CRO CH1 across the input and CH2 across resistor. Voltage (V. 3) Temperature Coefficient Zener Impedance (R2 . Zener diode observation tablein hindi 3. We just reverse the diode to measure the i v characteristics the sudden change might destroy the diode. Theory: A Zener Diode is constructed for operation in the reverse breakdown re-gion.The relation between I-V is almost linear in this case Vz =Vz0+Iz Rz, where Rz is the dynamic resistance of the zener … In the reverse biased mode zener diode has large breakdown voltage and though the current increases the voltage remains constant. EXPERIMENT: DIODE & ZENER DIODE Objective:- To study the forward and reverse bias characteristics of diode and zener diode. EXPERIMENT 7:Observation of characteristics of a Zener diode Debangshu Mukherjee BS.c Physics,1st Year Chennai Mathematical Institute 7.11.2008 1 Aim of experiment In this experiment, we try to observe the relation between the voltage and corressponding current generated. The symbol of zener diode is similar to the normal p-n junction diode, but with bend edges on the vertical bar. b. This article will help to explain the characteristics which make up zener diodes, specifically how the voltage across a zener diode varies with the current flowing through it. The forward bias region of a Zener diode is identical to that of a regular diode. Ans: The device has only one junction, so it is called the uni-junction device. Not Specified Not Specified The function of CR1 is to provide additional regulation of the input voltage and form the basis of the reference output. Ans: Avalanche breakdown and Zener breakdown. (Make sure you switch from the Diode Tracer window to the Zener Diode … To Study the Reverse characteristics of Zener diode. Result: a. Zener diodes are diodes deliberately optimized for use in the reverse breakdown region. As the reverse bias is increased, the Electric field becomes strong enough to rupture covalent bonds and generate large number of charge carriers. Connections can be made as seen in the circuit diagram by clicking and dragging the mouse from one connecting terminal to the other connecting terminal of the devices to be connected. Jan 02, 2021 - Theory & Procedure, Diode Characteristics Class 12 Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of JEE. Connect the CRO CH1 across the input and CH2 across resistor. 1. The function of a regulator is to provide a constant output voltage to a load connected in parallel with it in spite of the ripples in the supply voltage or the variation in the load current and the zener diode will continue to regulate the voltage until the diodes current falls below the minimum IZ(min) value in the reverse breakdown region. Procedure: Forward Bias Characteristics: 1. As the applied reverse voltage increases the minority carriers acquire sufficient energy to collide with the carriers in the covalent bonds inside the depletion region. They have a large forward current flowing through them with a negligible voltage drop across them. To Study the V-I characteristics of Forwa rd Biased PN junction diode. For correct voltage regulation, we need to find out precisely what voltage should be across the Zener diode.Zener breakdown voltage should be approximately close to the desired voltage we want. It is generally 0.6v for a  Silicon diode. Once the values are noted the plot of characteristics curves between voltage and current is plotted. On plotting an V vs I curve, we will get a clear picture of the ... we just reverse the diode to measure the I-V characteristics, the sudden change might destroy the diode. Experiment No: 2 ZENER DIODE CHARACTERISTICS AIM: 1. Answer: c Explanation: Zener diodes are used as voltage regulators but they aren’t called voltage regulators. The VI characteristics of a zener diode is shown in the below figure. Its characteristics are otherwise very similar to common diodes. Plot the graph between VS and VO taking VS­ on X-axis and VO on Y-axis. Zener Diode Characteristics. Aim : To study the VI Characteristics of Zener Diode. Zener diodes not only stabilize long-term voltage fluctuations, but also short-term fluctuations as they are caused by the residual ripple of a rectified, pre-smoothed AC voltage. To see the graph, click on the graph icon in the worksheet. Connect the circuit as shown in figure (2). Theory:-A Semiconductor diode is prepared by joining P and N sections of a semi conducting … Ans: Reverse breakdown due to avalanche mechanism or Zener effect.In reverse bias a rapid change in the current at break down voltage. Experiment 8 . Connect the circuit for Load regulation as shown in figure (4). 2. While doing the experiment do not exceed the readings of the diode. A conventional solid-state diode allows significant current if it is reverse-biased above its reverse breakdown voltage. EXP-7> To draw characteristics of a zener diode and to determine its reverse breakdown voltage. Shorted Diode. Compare Zener Breakdown and Avalanche breakdown? Plot Volt-Ampere Characteristics of Zener Diode. Least count of milli-ammeter  = ...........mA, Zero error of milli-ammeter = ...........mA. For Zener diodes, silicon is preferred to Ge because of its high temperature and current capability. What makes them different from other diodes is that Zener diodes will also allow current to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above a certain value. current increases at a rapid rate. Theory Zener Diode. lN940B . The I-V Characteristics Curve of a zener diode, shown below, is the curve which shows the current-voltage relationship of a zener diode. Connect the CRO CH1 across the input and CH2 across resistor. Select the diode; Set the rheostat R h =1 Ω; By adjusting the rheostat, voltmeter reading is increased from 0 and in each time note the corresponding reading in milliammeter. Hence a regulated DC output voltage V0 = VZ is obtained across RL, whenever the input voltage remains within a minimum and maximum voltage. Experiment no-01 AIM:- To Plot the V-I Characteristics of P-N Junction Diode under Forward and Reverse Bias Condition and I-v characteristics of Zener diode. A signal diode or rectifier will have a high reverse breakdown, from 50 to 2000 volts, and is NOT designed to operate in the breakdown region. Forward characteristics are similar to both, although the zener's forward characteristics is usually not specified, as the zener will never be used in that region. As a result, the bond breaks and electron hole pairs are generated. A standard 10 V Zener may have a temperature coefficient of +0.07%/ °C which may correspond to 7 mV/ °C variation in temperature. Give the input as triangular voltage waveform from Function Generator (both positive and negative peaks). Ans:Peak Inverse Voltage(PIV) of Zener diode is the peak voltage across the diode in reverse direction in reverse bias,it is equal to the break down voltage of zener diode. A Zener diode is a diode which allows current to flow in the forward direction in the same manner as an ideal diode, but will also permit it to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above a certain value known as the breakdown voltage Ans:If P-N regions are heavily doped in zener diode its break down voltage will decrease. Find Zener Breakdown Voltage in Reverse Biased conditions. So we take the ohmmeter and place it across the leads of the diode. To redo the experiment, click on the ‘Reset’ button. The Zener breakdown voltage is the minimum reverse biased voltage below which the diode blocks the reverse … Identification, Specification & Testing of Components and Equipment’s, Forward & Reverse Bias Characteristics of PN Junction Diode, Half Wave Rectifier With and Without Filters, Full Wave Rectifier With and Without Filters, Input & Output Characteristics of CB Configuration and h-Parameter Calculations, Input & Output Characteristics of CE Configuration and h-Parameter Calculations, Frequency Response of Common Emitter Amplifier, Uni Junction Transistor(UJT) Characteristics, Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR) Characteristics, Characterstics of Emitter Follower Circuit, Design and Verification of Fixed Bias Circuits. The experiment is continued till the milliammeter shows a large deflection while the voltmeter reading remains a constant, indicating the break down voltage. While doing the experiment do not exceed the ratings of the diode. ZENER DIODE CHARACTERISTICS EXPERIMENT 2018 - Duration: 6:58. Developed by Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham & CDAC Mumbai. analyze the forward and reverse bias characteristics of Zener diode. There is a controlled breakdown which does not damage the diode when a reverse current above the Zener voltage passes through a Zener diode. From the plot at which point of voltage the spike in current is noticed that voltage value is referred to as Zener … Plot the reverse characteristic curve by taking reverse voltage along –ve X-axis and reverse current along –ve Y-axis. Zener doide is a special diode with increased amounts of doping. In breakdown the voltage across the Zener diode is close to constant over a wide range of currents thus making it useful as a shunt voltage regulator. To study the voltage regulation in Zener diode regulation circuit. Tabulate different reverse currents obtained for different reverse voltages. However, when reverse biased voltage is applied to the zener diode, it works in different manner. Varying amount of reverse current can pass through the diode without damaging it. The voltage across the zener will remain steady at its break down voltage VZ for all the values of zener current IZ as long as the current remains in the break down region. # Characteristics of a Zener Diode The above diagram shows the V-I characteristics of the Zener diode behavior. The purpose of a voltage regulator is to maintain a constant voltage across a load regardless of variations in the applied input voltage and variations in the load current. Calculate static and dynamic resistance of the Zener diode in both forward and reverse biased conditions (before, after break down voltages). Viva questions: 1. First, we will look at the general laboratory experiment and it’s format. 9. Tabulate different reverse currents obtained for different reverse voltages. In the forward bias direction, the zener diode behaves like an ordinary silicon diode. The V-I characteristics of an ideal zener diode is shown in Figure 1–1 (a) and a simple regulator circuit based on it in Figure 1-1 (b). Ans:Zener diode is generally used in Reverse biased condition.When zener diode is forward biased,it acts as a normal P-N junction diode. ... Zener diode is a P-N junction diode specially designed to operate in … Give the input as triangular voltage waveform from Function Generator (both positive and negative peaks). Ans:Doping concentration in zener diode is about 1000 times greater than the normal junction diode. BJT Characteristics (CE Configuration) Part A: Input Characteristics Part B: Output Characteristics 5. This may lead to damaging of the diode. Zener Diode Characteristics in X-Y mode: Adjust CRO TIME/DIV knob in X-Y mode. Ans:Zener breakdown due to change in high electric field intensity,where Avalanche breakdown due to ionization in electronand hole pairs. The breakdown voltage is specified as a voltage with a tolerance, such as 10 volts ±5%, which means the breakdown voltage (or operating voltage) will be between 9.5 volts and 10.5 volts. Zener Diode Characteristics. A typical Zener diode shunt regulator is shown in Figure 3. 3 Theory of experiment The diode is a device formed from a junction of n-type and p-type ... We have to take many readings till the input voltage is 2. about 30V. To Study the working of a diode as Bri dge rectifier with and without filter. The resistor is selected so that when the input voltage is at VIN(min) and the load current is at IL(max) that the current through the Zener diode is at least Iz(min). हिंदी മലയാളം The device, because of one P-N junction, is quite similar to a diode but it differs from an ordinary diode as it has three terminals. Rectifiers (without and with c-filter) Part A: Half-wave Rectifier Part B: Full-wave Rectifier 4. If both p-side and n-side of the diode are heavily doped, depletion region at the junction reduces compared to the width in normal doping. Ans: P-N junction diode is fabricated with low impurity concentrated P and N-type materials compared to Zener diode. The Zener conducts the least current when the load current is the highest and it conducts the most current when the load current is the lowest. Ans: A voltage regulator is an electronic circuit that provides a stable dc voltage independent of the load current, temperature and ac line voltage variations. The breakdown voltage of a Zener diode can be set by controlling the doping level. We are going to learn about an experiment to find out the Zener breakdown voltage and draw the characteristics of Zener diode. It is read as n-type of Zener diode and the other as p-type. In the reverse bias condition the Zener diode is an open circuit and only a small leakage current is flowing as shown on the exaggerated plot. 1. However, the Zener Diode or Breakdown Diode, as they are sometimes referred too, are basically the same as the standard PN junction diode but they are specially designed to have a low and specified Reverse Breakdown Voltage which takes advantage of any reverse voltage applied to it. PPM/OC (Max.) At the end of the experiment, the student will be able to ... Zener Characteristics; Select the diode; Set the rheostat R h =1 Ω; By adjusting the rheostat, voltmeter reading is increased from 0 and in each time note the corresponding reading in milliammeter. Any kind of infringement will lead to legal action. If a zener diode reads a voltage near its rated zener voltage, VZ, then it is good. This is a simple test we can do to check whether it is good, open, or shorted. The circuit diagram to plot the VI characteristics of a zener diode is shown. Jrd . 20 . You can use the embedded worksheet to enter the values. Basically there are two type of regulations such as: Fig (3) - Circuit Diagram of  Zener Diode as Line Regulator: Fig (4) - Circuit Diagram of Zener Diode as Load Regulator: c) Zener Diode as Line Regulator (for variations in supply voltage): Connect the circuit for Line regulation as shown in figure (3). The zener regulator is composed of resistor R1 and zener diode CR1• The resistor characteristics … Unlike ordinary PN junction diode, the reverse current in Zener diode is measured using milli-ammeter due to the large flow of current. In the reverse bias direction, there is practically no reverse current flow until the breakdown voltage is reached. To draw the characteristic curve of a Zener diode and to determine its reverse breakdown voltage. Write the features of UJT. What is the differences between the PN junction diode and Zener diode fabrication? Vary supply voltage (Vs) in in steps of 1volt from 0 - 15 volts and note the corresponding Zener Current (IZ), Load Current (IL) and Output Voltage (VO). Observe the nearly constant voltage in the breakdown region. The Zener diode mainly operates in reverse biased condition. What are the applications of Zener diode? 18. Applying a reverse bias causes a strong electric field get applied across the device. Plot the V-I graph and observe the change. Ans: Its come from the inventor of Zener diode name is Clarence Zener. The most common values for nominal working voltage are 5.1 V, 5.6 V, 6.2 V, 12 V and 15 V. We also carry Zener diodes with nominal working voltage up to 1 kV. Plot the reverse characteristic curve by taking reverse voltage along –ve X-axis and reverse current along –ve Y-axis. To Draw The Characteristic Curve Of A Zener Diode And To. If the diode reads a much higher voltage, of or near the voltage of the supply voltage feeding it, it is open and, thus, defective. 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